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Other and new anti-neoplastics


Compounds of platinum

Cisplatin is a hydro-soluble complex which contains in the center the atom of platinum surrounded with two atoms of chlorine and two ammonium groups. It is applied by the slow intravenous injection or infusion.

It can seriously damage the function of the kidneys if adequate hydratation and diuresis are not provided. It is a bit myelotoxic, but it causes heavy sickness and vomiting. Tingling in the ears and the loss of hearing are often detected, as well as peripheral neuropathy, hyperuricemia  and anaphylactic reactions.

Carboplatin is less nephrotoxic, neurotoxic and ototoxic and it is followed by the smaller frequency of sickness and vomiting, but it is more myelotoxic.

Other anti-neoplastics

Irinotecan and topotecan blocks the enzyme which takes part in the replication of DNA and they cause attaching of the enzyme to the DNA. Hydroxicarbamid prevents the transformation of ribonucleotides into deonucleotides whereby the built for DNA disappears. Tretinoin causes maturing of some carcinogenic cells whereby they lose the ability of division.

Monoclinic antibodies

Those are immunoglobulins which produce cellular cultures chosen to react to antigens. Some of them are humanized, which means that they are either hybrids or a combination of antibodies of man and mouse. They are ligated to the specific antigen in ab part of the molecule, leaving Fc part outside. This activates immunological mechanisms of the host and the carcinogenic cells are destroyed by lyses by means of complements, or they are attacked by killer cells. Some antibodies are ligated to receptors, growth factors, inhibiting the survival of cells and starting the process of apoptosis.

Rituximab is a monoclonic antibody which causes lyses or apoptosis of the cells. It is applied by infusion. It is used in the treatment of B-cellular lymphoma and it is efficient in 40-50% of patients, when it is combined with the standard chemotherapy. The most usual side effects are hypotension, fever and shiver during the infusion and reactions of hypersensitivity. The drug aggravates the symptoms of cardiovascular diseases.

Trastuzumab is a humanized mouse momoclonic antibody. The results show that when it is applied with standard chemotherapy, the one-year survival is achieved in 79% of patients with aggressive form of breast cancer. Side effects are similar as in the previous drug.

Kinase inhibitors

Imatinib mesilat is a small molecule which inhibits the transmission of signals in the cell. It does not only affect the thrombocytic growth factor, but also all other parts of signal transmission, especially kinase in the cytoplasma. It is used in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

Registered drugs

  • cisplatin – PLATIGAL (Galenika Serbia), CISPLATIN (Habit Pharm Serbia), CISPLATIN (Ebewe Pharma Ges.M.B.H NFG. KG Austria), CISPLATIN (Pfizer PTY. Limited Australija), PLATIDIAM (Pliva-Lachema Czech), PLATINEX (Bristol Myers Squibb USA),
  • karboplatin – PARAGAL (Galenika Serbia), CARBOPLATIN (Ebewe Pharma Ges.M.B.H NFG. KG Austria), CARBOPLATIN (Pfizer PTY. Limited Australia), CYCLOPLATIN (Pliva-Lachema Czech), PARAPLATIN (Bristol Myers Squibb USA),
  • oxaliplatin – OXALIPLATIN (Habit Pharm Serbia), ELOXATIN (Aventis Pharma Great Britain), ELOXATIN (Sanofi Synthelabo Groupe France), SINOXAL (S.C. Sindan – Pharma Romania),
  • rituksimab – MABTHERA (F.Hoffmann-La Roche Switzerland),
  • alemtuzumab – MABCAMPATH (Schering Germany),
  • cetuksimab – ERBITUX (Merck KgaA Germany),
  • bevacizumab – AVASTIN (F.Hoffmann-La Roche Switzerland),
  • imatinib – GLIVEC (Novartis Switzerland), GLIVEC (Novartis Pharma Stein Switzerland),
  • gefitinib – IRESSA (Astrazeneca UK Limited Great Britain),
  • erlotinib – TARCEVA (F.Hoffmann-La Roche Switzerland),
  • sorafenib – NEXAVAR (Bayer Healthcare Germany),
  • estramustin – ESTRACYT (Pfizer Italy),
  • tretinoin – VESANOID (F.Hoffmann-La Roche Switzerland),
  • irinotekan – CAMPTO (Aventis Pharma International France),
  • bortezomib – BELCADE (Janssen Pharmaceutica Belgium),
  • anagrelid – THROMBOREDUCTIN (AOP Orphan Pharmaceuticals Austria).

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